SAP – Síndrome de Alienación Parental

Este artículo no es mío, lo ha compartido Verónica Pca en Facebook. Solicita que se divulgue. Gracias Verónica.

Debido a circunstancias personales, he realizado una investigación sobre una estrategia post-machista que ampara a pedófilos y abusadores a la vez que criminaliza a las madres que denuncian los abusos. Se llama el SINDROME DE ALIENACION PARENTAL (SAP) inventado por Richard Gardner, reconocido apologista de la pedofilia y el incesto. Se lo utiliza para negar los abusos sexuales a hij@s, desestimando las denuncias de las madres; a veces, el resultado es que despojan a las madres de la custodia de los niños para pasársela al padre abusador. Como es de prever, los grupos neomachistas lo utilizan cada vez más y están preparando una ofensiva ante la ONU (a través de una campaña de; han llegado a solicitar que se declare el 25 de abril como Día del SAP, argumentando que los nińos reciben lavado de cerebro de sus madres, quienes les implantan falsos recuerdos de los abusos…

A pesar del intenso lobby que realizan abusadores y pedófilos con poder y dinero, en particular en Estados Unidos, el SAP no ha sido reconocido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud ni ha sido incluido en el listado de desórdenes mentales de la Asociación Americana de Psiquiatría. Es más, el SAP ha sido rechazado en medios científicos, legales y de militancia feminista. Favor de consultar los enlaces de la compilación que adjunto.

A continuación, les incluyo una compilación de leyes, declaraciones, dictámenes, artículos de prensa, etc. en tres idiomas: español, inglés y francés, publicados en Estados Unidos, Argentina, España, Italia, Uruguay y Francia.

Mucho les agradeceré una divulgación exhaustiva en ámbitos legales, académicos, etc.

Un gran saludo.


A Judicial Guide to Child Safety in Custody Cases (2008)…/defa…/files/judicial%20guide_0_0.pdf
National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges Family Violence Department C. [§3.3] A Word of Caution about Parental Alienation Under relevant evidentiary standards, the court should not accept testimony regarding parental alienation syndrome, or “PAS.” The theory positing the existence of PAS has been Supreme Court ruled that even expert testimony based in the “soft sciences” must meet peer review, publication, testability, rate of error, and general acceptance. PAS does not pass this test. Any testimony that a party to a custody case suffers from the syndrome or “parental alienation” should therefore be ruled inadmissible and stricken from the evaluation report under both the standard established in Daubert and the earlier Frye standard38. (38. These are federal standards, but many states adhere to them at least generally and should still exclude any proffered evidence of PAS. )The discredited “diagnosis” of PAS (or an allegation of “parental alienation”), quite apart from its scientific invalidity, inappropriately asks the court to assume that the child’s behaviors and attitudes toward the parent who claims to be “alienated” have no grounding in reality. It also diverts attention away from the behaviors of the abusive parent, who may have directly influenced the child’s responses by acting in violent, disrespectful, intimidating, humiliating, or discrediting ways toward the child or the other parent. The task for the court is to distinguish between situations in which the child is critical of one parent because they have been inappropriately manipulated by the other (taking care not to rely solely on subtle indications), and situations in which the child has his or her own legitimate grounds for criticism or fear of a parent, which will likely be the case when that parent has perpetrated domestic violence. Those grounds do not become less legitimate because the abused parent shares them, and seeks to advocate for the child by voicing his or her concerns.
.- No Empiric Research Exists Validating Parental Alienation Syndrome (Rebecca Shiemke,, LEGAL NEWS, February 9th 2015)

.- The Evidentiary Admissibility of Parental Alienation Syndrome: Science, Law, and Policy (by J. Hoult) Social Science Research Network Journal
.- Parental Alienation Syndrome and Alienated Children – getting it wrong in child custody cases (Carol BRUCH) This article examines mental health and legal responses when children resist visits with noncustodial parents. In Parental Alienation Syndrome and Alienated Children, it finds a lack of rigorous analysis that endangers children. The author concludes by suggesting better ways to evaluate new theories from the social sciences. Citation conventions are based in part on The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Harvard Law Review Assoc, 17th ed 2001).

NEW YORK (AP) – Rebuffing an intensive lobbying campaign, a task force of the American Psychiatric Association has decided not to list the disputed concept of parental alienation in the updated edition of its catalog of mental disorders. (2012)…/psychiatric-group-parent…/……/…/10.1080/10538712.2011.628272…
Is Parental Alienation Disorder a Valid Concept? Not According to Scientific Evidence. A Review of Parental Alienation, DSM-5 and ICD-11 by William Bernet
M. Brianna Pepitona*, Lindsey J. Alvisa, Kenneth Allenb & Gregory Logid, pages 244-253
Contested custody
Inappropriate assumptions are common in family courts.
By Rebecca A. Clay
July/August 2014, Vol 45, No. 7
Print version: page 34
American Psychological Association

Child Custody Litigation: Professional Guidelines and Practice Parameters

.- Parental Alienation Disorder: Why Label Children with a Mental Diagnosis?
Lenore E. Walkera* & David L. Shapiroa, JOURNAL OF CHILD CUSTODY, Volume 7, Issue 4, pages 266-286, 2010.…/…/10.1080/15379418.2010.521041…


ABA American Bar Association. Commission on Domestic Violence
10 Myths about Custody and Domestic Violence and How to Counter Them
“Myth 7: Parental Alienation Syndrome is a scientifically sound phenomenon”


January 1, 2008
Statement on Parental Alienation Syndrome
The American Psychological Association (APA) believes that all mental health practitioners as well as law enforcement officials and the courts must take any reports of domestic violence in divorce and child custody cases seriously. An APA 1996 Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family noted the lack of data to support so-called «parental alienation syndrome», and raised concern about the term’s use. However, we have no official position on the purported syndrome.
The American Psychological Association (APA), in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world’s largest association of psychologists. APA’s membership includes more than 150,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 53 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare.

PAS as a scientific theory has been excoriated by legitimate researchers across the nation. Judged solely on his merits, Dr. Gardner should be a rather pathetic footnote or an example of poor scientific standards.” [Dr. Paul J. Fink, past President of the American Psychiatric Association] Carol S. Bruch, Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation: Getting It Wrong in Child Custody Cases, 35 Fam. L. Q. 527, 539 (2001) (quoting Dr. Fink from Pasadena-Star News, April 24, 2000, at
6.- “Although there are no data to support the phenomenon called parental alienation syndrome, in which mothers are blamed for interfering with their children’s attachment to their fathers, the term is still used by some evaluators and courts to discount children’s fears in hostile and psychologically abusive situations.” (American PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON VIOLENCE IN THE FAMILY, VIOLENCE AND THE FAMILY (1996)

“We refer to cases in which the children may express fear of, be concerned about, have distaste for, or be angry at one of their parents as being estranged from that parent. We do not use the labels of “parental alienation”, “alienation”, or “parental alienation syndrome” to describe this behavior because to do so would give credibility to a “theory” that has been discredited by the scientific community. See AM. PSYCHOL. ASS’N, supra note 2, at 40; see also Carol S. Bruch, Parental Alienation Syndrome and Alienated Children – getting it wrong in child custody cases, 14 CHILD & FAM. L. Q. 381 (2002) and Kathleen Coulborn Faller, The Parental Alienation Syndrome: What Is It and What Data Support It?, 3 CHILD MALTREATMENT 100 (May 1998). For a more complete discussion on “alienation”, “parental alienation” or “parental alienation syndrome”, see infra p. 24-25 (Determine Whether to Admit the Report into Evidence). State Justice Institute & National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, Navigating Custody & Visitation Evaluations in Cases with Domestic Violence: A Judge’s Guide (2004, revised 2006)
JUSTICE FOR CHILDREN: Warning! Don’t Fall for Discredited Parental Alienation Syndrome Day
Domestic Violence Legal Empowerment and Appeals Project (DV LEAP) Scientific and Professional Rejections of Parental Alienation Syndrome (updated August 2013)

National District Attorneys Association
“Although PAS may be hailed as a “syndrome” (a group of symptoms that occur together and constitute a recognizable abnormality), in fact it is the product of anecdotal evidence gathered from Dr. Gardner’s own practice.4 The purpose of this article is to briefly discuss the major premises upon which PAS is based, and to identify key weaknesses. Part 2 of this Update considers case law and strategies for meeting PAS defenses.
PAS is based primarily upon two notions, neither of which has a foundation in empirical research”

Supporters of PAS argue largely from personal experience, and their stories are often compelling. But the theory of PAS is not recognized as valid by the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, or the American Medical Association. And the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges has published guidelines for custody courts clarifying that «the theory positing the existence of ‘PAS’ has been discredited by the scientific community. Any testimony that a party to a custody case suffers from the syndrome or ‘parental alienation’ should therefore be ruled inadmissible and/or stricken from the evaluation report.»
Gardner’s long-term scientific credibility was not helped by some of his kookier pronouncements about incest («intrafamilial pedophilia … is widespread and … is probably an ancient tradition»), or pedophilia («It is of interest that of all the ancient peoples it may very well be that the Jews were the only ones who were punitive toward pedophiles.»). But he still managed to become the David Barton of child-custody law, having written more than 250 books and articles, cassettes, and videotapes (often self-published) and testified as an expert in approximately 400 cases in more than 25 states.

12.- It is impossible to find objective data on the disorder. There are no statistics regarding the prevalence of PAS—because it isn’t formally recognized by mental health professionals. The bible of psychiatric diagnoses, the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), does not list the term parental alienation syndrome in any of its 991 pages. It has never been included in any AMA (American Medical Association) document.

COURT CASES (abusers filing for PAS)…/judge-tells-simcox-he-cant-rely…/


Spain: (2013) GENERAL COUNCIL OF THE JUDICIARY. Guidelines of judiciary process regarding gender violence. Rejects so called PAS and its “therapy”.…/Guia_de_criterios_de_actuacio…

Argentina: RESOLUTION ANTI PAS (CONGRESS, ARGENTINA) approved by unanimity.


La Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría hace la siguiente declaración en contra del uso clínico y legal del llamado Síndrome de Alienación Parental (2010)
B.- Y otros términos bajo los cuales se reproducen los mismos contenidos y las orientaciones prácticas del SAP: “La utilización del llamado «Síndrome de Alienación Parental» (en adelante. SAP), o la de una denominación alternativa pero con la misma virtualidad, para explicar y tratar de solucionar los problemas de relación entre padre e hijos tras una situación de crisis matrimonial ‐una de las reacciones referidas‐ es una preocupante realidad cada vez más común”.
Guía de Criterios de Actuación Judicial Frente a la Violencia de Género del Consejo General del Poder Judicial de 2008.




D.- Otra versión sobre la polémica de los abusos
La jueza Graciela Jofre consideró el Síndrome de Alienación Parental como “una siniestra creación pseudocientífica” y rechazó la argumentación del padre, que había sido denunciado por la madre.…/senten…

E.- Lo penal no es vinculante a lo civil…/s…/218521-63301-2013-04-22.html


15 NOV 2013
G.- El síndrome de alienación parental es “ilegal”, aseguran especialistas…/40971-el-sindrome-de-alienacion-p…

H.- SÍNDROME DE ALIENACIÓN PARENTAL (SAP) by Miguel Lorente…/s%C3%ADndrome-de-alienación-paren…

I.- LA REVANCHA (articulo de PAGINA12, Argentina)…/…/las12/13-8960-2014-07-04.html

J.- ONG COMUNICAR IGUALDAD declaracion sobre inexistencia del SAP

K.-HABLEMOS DEL SAP (Emilia Caballero Alvarez, abogada Síndic de Greuges [Defensora del Pueblo} de la Comunitat Valenciana, España)

L.- Alienación parental: una excusa para no escuchar a los chicos (AGENCIA NACIONAL DE NOTICIAS JURIDICAS) Argentina, 1st December 2013…/alienacion-parental-una…



I.- Autopsie du Syndrome d’Aliénation Parentale (SAP/AP)…/autopsie-du-syndrome-d-alienati…

Syndrome d’aliénation parentale ou aliénation parentale (article by Jacqueline Phélip, in Journal of Centre de recherches internationales et de formation sur l’inceste et la pédocriminalité {CRIFIP) June 2011.…/syndrome-d-alienation-parentale-ou-


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